Colon Inflammation Markers Lower With Ginger Extract, http://www.mdnews.com/news/hd/2011_42/hd_657614 (I.4.ginger1) *Two grams of ginger was given daily for 30 days and intestinal lining inflammation seemed improved based on reduced free arachidonic acid (which is released from breakdown of the endogenous cannabinoids after they are released from their membrane storage in response to elevated intracellular calcium or glutamate levels).
Grant GE, Rubino S, Gravel S, Wang X, Patel P, Rokach J, Powell WS. Enhanced formation of 5-oxo-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid by cancer cells in response to oxidative stress, docosahexaenoic acid and neutrophil-derived 5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid. Carcinogenesis. 2011 Jun;32(6):822-8. Epub 2011 Mar 10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21393477 (I.5.oxidative stress, arachidonic acid & calcium) Excerpt: "Stimulation of neutrophils with arachidonic acid and calcium ionophore in the presence of PC3 cells led to a large and selective increase in 5-oxo-ETE synthesis compared with controls in which PC3 cell 5-oxo-ETE synthesis was selectively blocked by pretreatment with NEM. The ability of prostate tumor cells to synthesize 5-oxo-ETE may contribute to tumor cell proliferation as well as the influx of inflammatory cells, which may further induce cell proliferation through the release of cytokines. 5-Oxo-ETE may be an attractive target in cancer therapy."
Zick SM, Turgeon DK, Vareed SK, Ruffin MT, Litzinger AJ, Wright BD, Alrawi S, Normolle DP, Djuric Z, Brenner DE. Phase II Study of the Effects of Ginger Root Extract on Eicosanoids in Colon Mucosa in People at Normal Risk for Colorectal Cancer. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011 Oct 11. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21990307 (I.6.ginger2) Excerpt: "On the basis of these results, it seems that ginger has the potential to decrease eicosanoid levels, perhaps by inhibiting their synthesis from arachidonic acid. Ginger also seemed to be tolerable and safe. Further investigation in people at high risk for CRC seems warranted."
Srivastava KC. Isolation and effects of some ginger components of platelet aggregation and eicosanoid biosynthesis. Prostaglandins Leukot Med. 1986 Dec;25(2-3):187-98. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3103137 (I.7.ginger3) Excerpt: "Interestingly the incorporation of AA into platelet phospholipids increased in platelets treated with aqueous ginger extract."
http://i4cmwo.com.au/ginger.html (I.8.ginger4) Excerpt: "The University of Virginia research determined that the prostate cancer cells will only eat a chemical called 5-HETE. The cancer center determined that 5-HETE was created from the body’s “combustion” of an Omega-6 fatty acid called arachidonic acid. There is an enzyme called 5-lipoxygenase (or 5-LO for short), and when 5-LO burns or oxidizes the fatty acid, out plops 5-HETE.The researchers concluded that prostate cancer cells eat only this food, and that if the 5-LO enzyme is inhibited, and the food is not around, then the prostate cancer cells experience massive and rapid “apoptosis”, or cellular suicide, within 1 to 2 hours. Ginger Stem (or root?)is the world’s most comprehensive herbal inhibitor of 5-LO, with at least 22 proven phytonutrient inhibitors of that enzyme. What is more, Oriental Cultures that regularly consume ginger as a spice, or which take it therapeutically, experience a fraction of the cancer mortalities compared to the United States. In other words, men don’t die from prostate cancer cells, we die from the growth and proliferation of the cancer. Once we know that ginger inhibits the process that leads to the creation of the only food the cancer cells will eat, it gives us confidence that an herbal approach to 5-LO inhibition is an indispensable part of prostate health.”
Jagadananda Ghosh and Charles E. Myers, Inhibition of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase triggers massive apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 October 27; 95(22): 13182–13187. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC23752/?tool=pubmed (I.9.ginger & prostate cancer) Excerpt: "These findings represent an insight into events regulating apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. Although various eicosanoids have been implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation and cell death in other cell types, this report substantiates that eicosanoids of the 5-HETE series act as critical survival factors for human prostate cancer cells. This antiapoptotic action is quite dramatic in that once the synthesis of this eicosanoid is blocked, onset of massive apoptosis is apparent within 30–60 min."
Gupta S, Srivastava M, Ahmad N, Sakamoto K, Bostwick DG, Mukhtar H. Lipoxygenase-5 is overexpressed in prostate adenocarcinoma. Cancer. 2001 Feb 15;91(4):737-43. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11241241 (I.10.ginger & prostate cancer 2) *Roughly: the prostate cancer cells have learned how to signal the body to make the 5-Lipoxygenase so more ginger for men as a preventative and if prostate cancer is already present then excess intake of arachidonic acid foods (poultry & other meats for example) may not be good.
Kim JH, Hubbard NE, Ziboh V, Erickson KL. Attenuation of breast tumor cell growth by conjugated linoleic acid via inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase activating protein. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005 Oct 1;1736(3):244-50. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16185917 (I.11.ginger & breast cancer) Excerpt: "Ginger has shown downregulation of COX in vitro and decreased incidence/multiplicity of adenomas in rats. This study was conducted to determine if 2.0 g/d of ginger could decrease the levels of PGE(2), 13-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids, and 5-, 12-, and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-, 12-, and 15-HETE), in the colon mucosa of healthy volunteers. To investigate this aim, we randomized 30 subjects to 2.0 g/d ginger or placebo for 28 days. Interestingly, t10, c12-CLA reduced the expression of five-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) but not the 5-lipoxygenase enzyme. Over-expression of FLAP abrogated t10, c12-CLA-reduced viability of MDA-MB-231 cells. These data suggest that the reduction of 5-HETE by t10, c12-CLA was due to competition with AA and the reduction of FLAP expression." *The take home point roughly - if you already have breast cancer (and probably similar for prostate cancer) then more CLA good fats may help reduce the overfeeding on arachidonic acid by the cancer cells.
Behavioral Neurobiology of the Endocannabinoid System, Editors David Kendall and Stephen Alexander (Springer, 2009, Nottingham, U.K.). (I.14.Searchworks)
Endocannabinoids: The Brain and Body’s Marijuana and Beyond, (CRC Press, 2006, Boca Raton, FL), Chapter Three, Endocannabinoid Receptor Genetics and Marijuana Use, editor and chapter by Emmanuel S. Onaivi, et al., (pages 72-73, 91, and 333), Chapter 15, Neuropsychiatry: Schizophrenia, Depression, and Anxiety, chapter by Ester Fride and Ethan Russo, (page 378), (I.15.Endocannabinoids: FullText pdf)
Behavioral Neurobiology of the Endocannabinoid System; Ch.13: Drug Addiction, (page 334, I.9.Searchworks) Behavioral Neurobiology of the Endocannabinoid System, Editors David Kendall and Stephen Alexander (Springer, 2009, Nottingham, U.K.). (I.Searchworks)
Endocannabinoids: The Brain and Body’s Marijuana and Beyond, (CRC Press, 2006, Boca Raton, FL), Chapter Three, Endocannabinoid Receptor Genetics and Marijuana Use, editor and chapter by Emmanuel S. Onaivi, et al., (pages 72-73, 91, and 333), Chapter 15, Neuropsychiatry: Schizophrenia, Depression, and Anxiety, chapter by Ester Fride and Ethan Russo, (page 378), (I.10.Endocannabinoids: FullText pdf)
Disclaimer: Opinions are my own and the information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.
The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics has a service for locating a nutrition counselor near you at the website eatright.org: (eatright.org/find-an-expert)
Instinct & Policy; Introduction
Table of Contents
Chapters and Glossary section summaries & links, and a link for the book version of this site, Instinct & Policy: Effective Care and Best Practices for Promoting Health and Preventing Harassment and Discrimination.
Redefining the neurobiological underpinnings and genetic risks of the behavior we call addiction could lead to more targeted help for the sufferers of addiction rather than continuing to treat them primarily by focusing on a discussion of their difficulties with motivation or impulse control.
Definitions of terms and the resources & therapy techniques from the various sections gathered in one location for convenience with some additional topics and material for background detail not covered elsewhere.