When glucose or ketones are not available for energy use or any essential nutrients are deficient, the body will start recycling nutrients from cellular parts such as mitochondria, other organelles within the cell or from the cellular membranes (in a process called autophagy in general or mitophagy when mitochondria specifically are being recycled). If oxidative stress is occurring at rates that insufficient antioxidants are available for detoxification of the reactive oxidative species then nutrients may be also be harvested from cellular parts which may lead to mitochondria or cell death. (G12.7) When malnutrition in general, (G.41, G.42) , or specific nutrient deficiencies are occurring for longer amounts of time, then the breakdown of cellular parts may lead to a level of mitochondria death and cell death that leads to chemical signals that may cause increased amounts of demyelination of nerve cells. (G12.8, G12.9)
Nutrients used as additional supplements for patients with conditions affecting the mitochondria, the energy producing organelles found inside cells, are listed in Table 2 with dosing recommendations. From Table 2: Ubiquinol is the preferred form of CoQ10 over ubiquinone, Riboflavin, B2 and B complex are used in higher than RDA doses, L-Creatine, L-Arginine, L-Carnitine are recommended amino acids, vitamin E, C and Alpha Lipoic Acid are recommended. (G.41, Table 2) Dosing recommendations from a different source mentions that very high doses of CoQ10 may cause muscle breakdown in up to 20% of patients.
- Dosing recommendation for those with mitochondrial disease or those with mitochondrial related disorders such as ALS, that result from secondary mitochondrial dysfunction: "Typical dosing of CoQ10 is 5-15mg/kg of body weight" and very high dose supplementation (2700 mg/day) may lead to increased muscle breakdown in 10-20% of the patients. Creatine: "medical grade product...(dosing is typically 5g/day for children, 10g/day in adults)" (G.39)
A nutrient group that is not considered essential because people of normal health and nutritional status can make the complex chemicals has been found helpful in reducing breakdown of myelin in a few ways. Cannabinoids have been found helpful in Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS),(G12.19), Multiple sclerosis, (G12.20, G12.25), Huntington’s Disease, (G12.22), and Alzheimer’s dementia in a way that might help reduce demyelination by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase enzyme. Chemical inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase have been found helpful to reduce demyelination and neuroinflammation in Myasthenia Gravis (G12.30, G12.31, G12.32) Ibuprofen has also been found to be preventative for Alzheimer’s Disease and its anti-inflammation mechanism works by reducing breakdown of cannabinoids. (page 134:G12.26, G12.27, G12.28, G12.29)
The cannabinoid group of chemicals are also available in a few food sources in the whole form or as the two main parts: phospholipids and fatty acids. More information about the chemistry and common food sources is available in the Glossary, within the Macro and Micro Nutrients section, and in an article suggesting a need for more research into supplementation with phospholipids for preventing or improving cognitive decline. (G.43)
Genetic differences, malnutrition, or changes due to aging or illness may interfere with our ability to make the chemicals internally/endogenously. The cannabinoid group help form membranes and provide flexibility to the membrane and when released from storage in the membranes can act as signaling chemicals or be transformed into other signaling chemicals. They have been found to help protect nerves from demyelination directly by activating/signaling the CB2 receptors in glial brain cells to reduce inflammation and by reducing the effects of glutamate and limiting excitotoxicity risks by activating the CB1 receptors; and indirectly by increasing antioxidant pathways which would help reduce oxidative stress.(G12.21, G12.22)
To be continuued.